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How Advertising Works The Role of Research_部分2

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内容提示: NTI NAD REPORT — NOVEMBER 1993 TABLE 10A EVENING AUDIENCE BY MARKET SECTION INDIVIDUAL NETWORK PROGRAMS (TOTAL DURATION) WHEN FRESH PRINCE OF BEL AIR WEEKS 1234 MINS 120 MON 8.00PM - 8.30PM CS NBC RATIN0S(%) HOUSE-W R K W O N TEEN! CHILDREN TOTAL U.S. TERRITORY NORTHEAST EAST CENTRAL WEST CENTRAL SOUTHEAST SOUTHWEST PACIFIC COUNTY SIZE A B C4D CABLE/VCR STATUS ANY CABLE PAY CABLE NO CABLE VCR OWNERSHIP HHLD SIZE 1 2 3+ 4+ PRESENCE OF NON-ADULTS ANY UNDER 18 ANY UNDER 12 ANY UNDER 6 ANY...

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NTI NAD REPORT — NOVEMBER 1993 TABLE 10A EVENING AUDIENCE BY MARKET SECTION INDIVIDUAL NETWORK PROGRAMS (TOTAL DURATION) WHEN FRESH PRINCE OF BEL AIR WEEKS 1234 MINS 120 MON 8.00PM - 8.30PM CS NBC RATIN0S(%) HOUSE-W R K W O N TEEN! CHILDREN TOTAL U.S. TERRITORY NORTHEAST EAST CENTRAL WEST CENTRAL SOUTHEAST SOUTHWEST PACIFIC COUNTY SIZE A B C4D CABLE/VCR STATUS ANY CABLE PAY CABLE NO CABLE VCR OWNERSHIP HHLD SIZE 1 2 3+ 4+ PRESENCE OF NON-ADULTS ANY UNDER 18 ANY UNDER 12 ANY UNDER 6 ANY e-11 ANY 12-17 HOUSEHOLD INCOME S20-28.9W $40-59,999 SELECTED UPPER DEMOS $40,000+ WITH NON-ADULTS $40,000+ A HON POM $40,000+ 1HOH1+ YRS. COLLEGE EDUCATION OF HEAD OF HOUSE NO COLLEGE 4+ YEARS OF COLLEGE RACE BLACK HOLDS 18+ 18+ 18-34 18-49 25-54 35-64 55+ 18+ 18-34 18-49 25-54 35-64 55+ 12-17 12-17 2-11 .6-11 14.9 10.4 9.5 12.8 11.0 10.2 8 .3 6.9 6.8 9.5 8, ,1 7.4 5 .4 3.9 16.3 18.0 11.7 13.2 15.4 9.5 9.5 12.7 10.8 10.7 8 .5 7.3 6.8 8.9 8 6 7.9 6 .2 3.5A 19.8 IFR 12.7 13.4 18.8 14.2 11.0 15.7 13.4 12.7 9 .2 7.3 8.1 11.4 9 5 8.9 6 .5 4.7A 23.3 IFR 19.2 20.9 12.4 6.0 7.1 8.8 7.4 6.7 5 .9 6.8 5.4 8.5 6 .3 5.9 3 .6 3.0A 13.4 IFR 9.8 11.6 17.4 14.4 11.9 15.5 13.8 13.2 10 .7 9.2 9.5 12.0 10 .7 10.4 8 .3 7.5 17.3 IFR 13.2 15.4 14.9 12.6 11.1 17.3 13.7 10.4 8 .6 5.6A 6.2 10.6 8 2 8.5 4 .0 1.3v 16.6 IFR 10.0 12.2 10.8 7.0 7.1 9.0 8.1 8.0 6 .7 4.0 4.6 6.9 5 5 4.6 3 .4 2.1A 8.7 IFR 7.0 8.1 14.4 10.5 9.3 13.3 10.7 10.4 7 .6 6.2 6.1 9.0 7 , 7.0 4 .7 2.3 16.9 18.3 10.4 11.6 14.7 11.0 9.4 12.2 10.8 10.6 8 .4 6 5 7.3 10.5 8 7.5 5 6 5.1 15.8 18.5 12.1 13.4 15.7 9.6 10.0 12.8 11.6 9.7 9 .2 8.0 7.1 9.1 8 .6 7.8 6 .3 4.7 15.9 17.0 12.9 15.0 14.7 10.5 9.2 13.2 11.0 10.1 8 .0 5.3 6.2 9.0 7 .4 6.8 4 .7 3.3 16.9 19.4 12.5 14.5 18.1 12.2 10.7 14.9 11.8 11.2 8 .8 7.0 7.0 9.7 7 .9 7.1 5 .2 4.3 16.9 18.1 13.5 15.9 15.2 10.2 10.1 12.2 11.0 10.5 8 .8 9.1 7.8 10.5 9, 3 8.4 6 ,8 4.9 15.3 15.7 10.2 11.1 15.1 9.9 9.1 12.2 10.3 9.7 7 .9 6.2 6.3 8.6 7 .3 6.8 5 .0 3.8 16.3 18.5 11.5 13.4 8.5 11.0 8.6 IFR 11.0 11.3 10, .2 7.1 8.7 IFR 10 .1 10.1 6 .6 6.3 IFR IFR IFR IFR 10.9 10.0 8.5 14.0 11.4 9.3 7 .5 8.2 6.1 12.0 9 .9 7.5 4 .2 3.2 IFR IFR IFR IFR 21.3 10.5 10.3 12.7 10.8 10.5 8 .4 8.1 6.7 8.2 7, 3 6.9 5 .8 4.2 16.0 17.9 11.4 13.1 23.4 10.4 10.1 12.3 10.2 10.2 8 .0 10.0 6.9 8.2 7 .1 6.7 5 .8 7.0 15.8 17.2 10.9 12.7 23.0 12.5 11.9 14.6 12.0 11.5 9 .2 11.3 7.5 9.7 7 .7 7.1 5 .7 IFR 16.3 18.0 11.7 13.2 22.3 12.7 12.1 15.2 12.3 11.6 8 .0 IFR 7.9 10.4 8 .2 7.5 5 .5 IFR 17.1 19.2 11.7 13.2 20.8 13.1 13.5 15.4 13.6 12.8 9 .2 IFR 9.2 10.9 9 4 8.6 6 .8 IFR 17.4 IFR 9.8 10.5 233 10.9 107 14.3 10.9 10.8 7 .6 IFR 7.2 10 8 7 6 7.2 5 .0 IFR 18.5 18.2 12.5 13.2 27.7 11.4 10.0 11.1 10.0 10.2 9 ,5 IFR 6.9 8.9 6 9 6.4 6 .0 IFR 16.3 18.0 14.0 15.6 15.9 12.1 11.2 13.0 14.0 12.8 11. 9 7.1 7.7 9.1 9. 6 8.6 7 .7 4.7 20.9 IFR 13.9 139 14.5 12.4 10.2 12.3 12.1 11.5 9, 8 8.7 8.6 9.2 8 0 7.1 5 .8 3.3A 17.6 IFR 12.8 16.2 15.7 9.8 8.1 12.0 9.5 9.2 6 .6 2.7A 8.2 8.5 7 3 6.8 5 .3 1.9A 17.8 17.0 12.0 13.8 13.3 7.9 7.0 9.4 7.5 7.3 6. 3 5.4 4.8 7.8 5 .7 5.2 3 .4 1.9A 15.0 14.4 9.1 10.8 20.8 10.5 8.6 11.6 8.9 9.0 6 .7 IFR 5.5 7.4 5, 8 5 6 4 .5 IFR 16.3 15.7 10.6 12.4 11.9 7.6 8.2 8.0 8.7 6.7 5. .4 3.3A 4.2 6.9 4 8 3.9 2 .8 1.5v 15.0 14.9 7.8 10.0 13.2 8.6 7.3 9.8 7.8 8.0 6 .6 4.5 4.8 8.4 5, 9 5.2 3 2 1.3A 15.8 14.7 8.3 9.9 18.0 10.9 10.4 14.1 12.6 11.6 9 ,5 7.8 8.1 10.5 9. 9 9.5 7 .4 4.8 16.2 18.5 12.9 14.2 11.7 8.7 7.1 9.6 8.1 8.1 6 ,2 3.2A 4.3 7.0 5, 3 4.7 3 .2 1.6A 16.9 16.3 8.4 10.0 35.4 30.3 25.3 30.4 25.7 26.8 21, ,7 23.4 16.7 20.4 19. 8 20.9 14 .2 IFR 28.8 IFR 22.9 24.6 10A llllllilllililll E V E N I N G Figure 17.4. Section of Audience by Market Composition for a Program From National Audience Demographics, November 1993 SOURCE: Nielsen Media Research. Reprinted by permission. CNN AND HEADLINE NEWS MONTHLY REPORT C0V6. U.E. = 62981 N I E L S E N M E D I A R E S E A R C H TIME PERI0P CNN AND/OR HEADLINE NEWS COVERAGE HOUSEHOLDS SATURDAY 7;OOP- 7;3QP 7:00P THE CAPITAL GANG/HL SATURDAY 7:30P- 8:OOP 7:30P SPORTS SATURDAY/HL SATURDAY 9;OOP- 9;3QP 9: OOP LARRY KING WEEKEND/HL WKS IZ£_ HUT 1234 44.5 1234 1234 46.9 1234 1234 55.2 1234 1234 57.2 1.3 0.8 0.9 SHR 3 SATURDAY 9:30P-10:OOP FOR EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS. SEE BOILERPLATE 0.9 000 I TIME PERIOP 795 j SATURDAY 9;3QP-1Q;QQP I 9:30P | LARRY KING WEEKEND/HL I 504 | SATURDAY 11:00P-11:30P | 11:00P | CNN SPORTS TONIGHT/HL 556 | SATURDAY 12;OQf1-12;30A ! 12.00M | NEWSNIGHT/HL I 552 | SATURDAY 12:30A- 1:00A APRIL 1994 MARCH 28 - APRIL 24 CNN AND/OR HEADLINE NEWS COVERAGE HOUSEHOLDS WKS IZC_ HUT 1234 1234 51.8 1234 1234 41.7 1234 1234 36.9 AA SHR 0.5 0.5 0.4 AA OOP 283 304 238 PAGE COPYRIGHT 1994 NIELSEN MEDIA RESEARCH PRINTED IN U.S.A. Figure 17.5. Audience Estimates for Cable Programs on CNN, Nielsen Media Research, 1994 SOURCE: Nielsen Media Research. Reprinted by permission. 192 RESEARCH BEFORE THE ADVERTISING RUNS cast networks—ABC, CBS, and NBC—still appear to be dissatisfied and are investing an estimated $20 million to create a new ratings system under the auspices of CONTAM, called the System for Measuring and Reporting Television.6 Sampling representativeness and methodological biases are important fac­tors influencing ratings results. In 1987, when Nielsen was undergoing a transition from national Audimeters to People Meters, ratings differences were apparent between the two systems. Figure 17.6 compares the national television audience estimates for the same programs produced from Nielsen's People Meters and Nielsen's Audimeters. In addition, data from People Meters used by another service, Audits of Great Britain (AGB), are profiled. In 1987, AGB was a new competitor in the U.S. market. However, because of insuffi­cient industry support, it folded its U.S. operations in 1988. Ratings differ­ences between Nielsen and AGB People Meters were attributed mainly to imbalances in the geographic distribution of the early People Meter samples. Specifically, households in the West, which constituted a larger proportion of the AGB sample, watched less TV than did households in the Northeast, which dominated Nielsen's People Meter sample. Nielsen Station Index NSI provides ratings data for local markets. In each of nearly 30 markets, Nielsen installs Audimeters in 300 to 600 households and fields an equivalent number of diaries. Diaries only are placed in households in the other 200 and more local markets. Larger samples are fielded in larger markets. In the metered markets, ratings data are provided from the metered households and demographic data are blended in from the diaries. In the nonmetered markets, ratings and demographic data are all derived from the diaries. In both the metered and nonmetered markets, households are selected from telephone directories supplemented with telephone numbers generated by random digit dialing (RDD) procedures; that is, telephone numbers are randomly generated by a computer in order to capture unlisted telephone households. The house­holds are contacted and recruited to be Nielsen families. Overall response rates range from 35% to 60%, depending on the designated market area (DMA). Increased incentives, cover letters, and reminder telephone calls are used to increase participation among ethnic households, especially African American and Hispanic households. When appropriate, Spanish-language diaries are also provided. Electronic Media Audience Measurement 193 Week one with peoplemeters: how they compare in prime time The following is a head-to-head comparison of prime provides measurements for the full-length of a program time network programing for Monday. Aug. 31. through or movie, but does not break down those numbers on a Wednesday Sept. 2. using Nielsen's peoplemeter and half-hour basis. Such situations are denoted with an as-audimeter data and AGB's peoplemeter sample. AGB terisk in the chan. Monday, August 31 S-«:30 ABC • NFL CBS • Michael Jackson Special NBC • ALF ABC » NFL CBS • Kate & AMie NBC • vaiene ABC » NFL CBS • Newhan NBC • Monday Movie ABC • NFL CBS • Deinning *Abmen NBC • Monday Movie 10-10:30 ABC • NFL CBS • Cagney & Lacey NBC • Monday Movie 10:30-11 ABC » NFL CBS • Cagney & Lacey NBC • Monday Movie Tuesday, September 1 fr-6:30 ABC • Who* the Boss CBS • Simon & Simon NBC • Matlock ABC * Growmg Pains CBS • Simon & Simon NBC • Matlock ABC • Moonlighting CBS • Houston Knights NBC • Tuesday Movie / / / *S »/ 10.7/20 16.5/29 13.5/23 14.0/24 12.5/21 132/22 1*3/27 14.4/23 11.4/18 16.1/27 14.8/24 12.0/19 17.000 11.5*0 12.6/22 17.9/32 10.5/20 121/23 16.3/30 7.7/14 10.6/19 18.1/31 7.8/13 11.MO 15.1/26 11.600 7.7/13 9.7/17 11.9/20* ABC • Moonlighting 17.6/30 13 9/24 C8S • Houston Knighls 14.9/25 12.0/20 NBC • Tuesday Movte 13.1/22 14.1/23 14.6/24 15.1/25 17.3/27 112/18 156/25 162/26 124/20 16.6/28 12.9/22 12.7/22 16 7/30 11.8/22 12.0722 16.2730 6.5/12 13.4/25 181/31 7.4/13 14.6/25 ABC • Spenser: For Hire 113/18 CBS • Night Heal 1 3 1 2 2 N3C • Tuesday Movie 10:30-11 ABC • Spenser: For Hire 155/25 CBS • Night Heat 9 3/16' NBC • Tuesday Movie Wednesday, September 2 14 8/24 * " *: 3 ° • ABC • Perteci Strangers CBS • Mike Hammer NBC • Highway to Heaven 11.,/19: • ABC • Head of the Class CBS • Mike Hammer NBC • Highway to Heaven '. 9-9:30 • ABC • MacGyver CBS • Magnum P.I. NBC • Bronx 200 id.2/26 ABC • MacGyver 6.9/12* CBS • Magnum P.l 11.1/19* NBC • Bronx Zoo 10-10:30 16.0/27 ABC • Hotel * CBS • Equalize* * NBC • St Elsewhere 10:30-11 16.1/27 13.7/23' ABC • Hotel 11.5/19 10.6/18' C8S • Equalizer 6.6/15 5.6/10* NBC • St. Elsewhere 15 3/26 12.3/2! 6.4/11 11.3/21 11.1/20 6.8/13 10.6/21 11.6/24 63/12 12/22 8.7/16 96/18 13.4/24 10.0/18 10.3/16 11.9/21 12.0/21 86/15 12.3/21 12.802 8.9/16 16 9/28 11.5/19 7.4/12 13.3/24 9.7/19" 10.8/19 8 4/16* 7.6/14 12.9/24 114/22 7.4/14 12.3/23 n 2'21 9.5/18 9.7/18-10.6/20 10.6/19* 12.7/22 10.5/19 12.1/21 1 2 0 0 1 11.0/19' 12.7/22 12.3/21 10.0/17 9.1/15' 12.2/21 13.5/23 9.7/17 8.5/15 9.3/17 7.5/14 14.2/26 14.2/26 10.1/19' 8 7M6 9 4M7 8 4'lS B.3'16 82/16 13.8/27 14.9/29 9.1/18 9.6/18 Figure 17.6. Comparison of Ratings Produced by Three Monitoring Sources SOURCE: Broadcasting and Cable, September 7,1987. Reprinted by permission. Audience estimates from metered markets are available throughout the year on a daily basis, and data from the previous day (overnights) can be down­loaded directly from Nielsen's computers. Weekly metered reports are pro­duced in print form. NSI demographic information is reported only four to seven times a year, depending on the market. "Sweeps" periods are television audience survey periods that occur in November, February, May, and July. 194 RESEARCH BEFORE THE ADVERTISING RUNS Other survey periods are January, March, and October. Reports for nonme­tered markets are provided four times a year during sweeps. NSI reports are issued a month after data collection. Audience estimates for each market are reported for two geographic units (metropolitan area and DMA) and two demographic characteristics (age and sex). Figure 17.7 shows a section of the daypart summary. Cable networks that meet the minimum reporting standard of at least one rating in the survey period are reported. The low response rate for returned, completed diaries compromises sample representativeness. The limited number of weeks surveyed during sweeps leads to "hyping," or the special scheduling and promotion of blockbuster movies and special programs, so that normal viewing becomes distorted. When the NSI data become available a month after the survey period, it is often too late to assist broadcasters in making programming changes. Nielsen conducts telephone coincidental surveys for specific programs in local television markets when requested to do so by stations. These are often undertaken during nonsweep periods among nonmetered markets. The coop­eration rate is generally higher than that of the meter or diary approach. Areas surveyed include the metropolitan area and DMA, and gender and age demo­graphics are also reported. Results are available in a week. Arbitron Arbitron uses personal, open-ended diaries to record radio listening among respondents aged 12 and older in more than 250 local markets, or metros. Surveys are fielded during 12-week periods: fall, winter, spring, and summer. The largest markets are measured throughout the year, whereas smaller markets are measured once, twice, or three times, depending on their size. The spring report surveys all reportable local markets. Like Nielsen, Arbitron randomly selects households from telephone directories supplemented by telephone numbers generated by RDD procedures, to include unlisted num­bers in the sample. All family members aged 12 and older in a household receive radio diaries. The number of usable, completed diaries usually ranges from 550 in the smallest markets to 4,000 in the largest; response rates range from 30% to 40%. Reports are available about a month after the survey period. Audience data are provided for two geographic units (metro and total survey area) and two demographic characteristics (age and sex). Figure 17.8 shows a section of an Arbitron report showing target listener trends. Electronic Media Audience Measurement 195 DALLAS-FT. WORTH, TX DAYPART TIME(CTZ) STATION KOAF IW KOFI KOFW F KOTH P KOTX I KERA P KFW I KHSX t KNPX I KTVT C KTXA 1U KUVN I KXAS N KXTX I WFAA A VTBS T OSC ESP 3:fX KOAF IW KOFI KOFW KOTN KOTX KERA KFWD KHSX 1 I I KTVT C KTXA I J KUVN KXAS KXTX WFAA VTBS DSC ESP USA H/P/T.' 3:0OP-5:OOP KOAF IW KOFI I KOFW F KOTN P KOTX I KERA P KFVD I KHSX I KNPX I KTVT C KTXA IU KUVN I KXAS N KXTX I WFAA A VTBS T DMA HOUSEHOLD DMA RATINGS PERCENT OISTRJBUTION PERSONS WOMEN MEN ADJACENT ADJACENT MAY 1996 i l M | a | » ' g | » | a ' y | t t [ » ' 3 8 i * l » 7 | 3 i [ » | < o #1=WAC0-TEMPLE-8RYAN 273.260 #2=SHERMAN-ADA 109.130 #3~TYLER-L0NGVIEW(LFKN&NCGD) 222.940 Figure 17.7. Section of Daypart Summary From NSI Viewers in Profile, Dallas-Fort Worth, May 1996 SOURCE: Nielsen Media Research. Reprinted by permission. 196 RESEARCH BEFORE THE ADVERTISING RUNS T a r g e t L i s t e n e r T r e n d s Mondty-Sunday Persons 18-34 Monday-Friday AOH Cum, AOM AOM AOH Cum* AOM AOH AOH (00) Cunt AOM AOH AOH Oumt AOH AOH AOH Oumt AOH AOH (00) (00) mq 8hr (00) (00) *« •V AOH (00) (00) no Shr (00) (00) no Shr (00) ftfl Wm VI '96 13 201 1.0 6.2 18 88 1.4 7.3 19 108 1.5 6.5 17 140 1.3 6.7 8 93 .6 6.3 FA '95 91 .9 4.4 15 94 1.2 5.7 12 102 .9 4.7 5 78 .4 4.2 SU '95 5 131 .4 1.9 7 51 .5 2.3 7 61 .5 1.8 9 61 .7 2.6 2 39 .1 1.4 SP '95 4 112 .3 1.7 2 30 .1 .7 7 34 .5 2.0 4 40 .3 1.3 1 32 .1 .7 4-««0k 1 (13 .1 3.7 10 45 .7 3.7 It 74 .9 4.0 11 II .1 l.l 4 II .1 3.1 VI '95 4 130 .3 1.8 4 52 .3 1.5 5 40 .4 1.5 6 56 .4 2.0 2 22 .1 1.6 VFMC-FM VI '96 26 392 2.0 12.4 33 206 2.6 13.4 43 227 3.4 14.8 27 221 2.1 10.6 15 158 1.2 11.9 FA '95 25 366 2.0 12.7 33 231 2.6 13.1 38 219 3.0 14.3 32 235 2.5 12.4 12 149 .9 10.1 SU "95 25 323 1.9 9.7 36 177 2.7 11.6 47 173 3.5 12.1 30 172 22 8.6 10 93 .7 7.1 SP '95 26 409 1.9 11.0 33 226 2.5 11.5 48 221 3.6 14.0 29 227 2.2 9.5 11 165 .8 8.2 4-fMfc n m *.o If.5 34 3(0 3.1 13.4 44 HO 3.4 (3.1 30 3(4 3.1 (0.1 12 141 .9 9.9 VI *95 24 302 1.8 10.8 30 164 2.2 11.2 42 160 3.1 12.8 36 196 2.7 11.8 10 108 .7 8.1 4MZ2-FM VI '96 18 371 1.4 8.6 17 155 1.3 6.9 28 223 2.2 9.6 22 242 1.7 8.6 10 166 .8 7.9 FA '95 11 27ft .9 5.6 9 127 .7 3.6 16 173 1.3 6.0 13 156 1.0 5.0 5 101 .4 4.2 SU '95 20 347 1.5 7.8 20 192 1.5 64 32 215 24 8.2 26 198 1.9 7.5 8 120 .6 5.7 SP '95 19 354 1.4 8.1 30 246 2.2 10.5 25 197 1.9 7.3 22 200 1.6 7.2 8 163 .6 6.0 4-B0Ok 17 331 1.9 7.5 19 fl© 1.4 l.l 35 303 3.0 7.1 21 199 1.9 7.1 1 131 .1 1.0 VI *95 9 185 .7 4.0 10 95 .7 3.7 12 108 .9 3.7 12 116 .9 3.9 3 61 2 2.4 VILS-AV VI '96 1 12 . | .5 4 6 4 t 4 . 1 .8 FA '95 3 3 1 3 .1 .4 SU -95 27 4 1 10 . 1 .3 1 16 1 .3 10 SP '95 1 9 .1 .4 2 3 . 1 .7 4 9 .3 1.2 2 9 1 .7 4-l<X>* f \3 .1 .3 1 3 .3 1 1 .1 .4 1 1 .( .4 4 .1 VI '95 8 8 1 4 .1 .3 VITL-AK VI '96 10 5 1 5 . | .3 5 FA '95 (Hi SU '95 1 14 .1 .4 2 14 .1 .6 1 3 .1 .7 SP '95 8 8 4 1 4 .1 .3 4-«erfc 4* VI '95 19 2 15 .1 .7 « 11 .1 .3 1 7 .1 .3 VITL-FU VI '96 31 319 2.4 14.8 39 185 3.1 15.9 49 206 3.8 16.8 43 236 3.4 16.9 13 104 1.0 10.3 FA '95 23 336 1.8 11.7 42 194 3.3 16.7 32 242 2.5 12.1 26 205 2.0 10.1 10 104 .8 8.4 SU '95 29 340 2.2 11.2 47 223 3.5 15.1 41 252 3.1 10.5 38 243 2.8 11.0 15 134 1.1 10.7 SP '95 21 318 1.6 8.9 28 214 2.1 9.8 34 175 2.5 9.9 29 163 2.2 9.5 6 118 .6 6.0 4-lMft 31 331 1.0 ft.7 3t 304 3.0 14.4 31 219 3.0 13.3 34 217 3.1 ff.f 12 tfl .1 l.f VI '95 19 312 1.4 8.5 22 168 1.6 8.2 30 197 2.2 9.2 26 138 1.9 8.5 8 too .6 6.5 VJ1M-AM VI '96 4 60 .3 1.9 5 35 .4 2.0 6 37 .5 2.1 8 40 6 3.1 2 22 .2 1.6 FA '95 2 68 .2 1.0 1 10 .1 .4 3 28 .2 1.1 3 21 .2 1.2 2 3 2 1.7 SU '95 2 50 .1 .8 1 10 .3 5 34 .4 1.3 3 24 .2 9 12 SP '95 4 79 .3 1.7 4 23 !3 (.4 9 48 .7 26 8 44 .6 2.6 8 4-look 3 14 .3 1.4 3 30 .3 1.0 I 37 .« 1.9 4 33 .4 3.0 ( 11 .f VI '95 9 96 .7 4.0 2 20 •« .7 23 85 1.7 7.0 15 68 l.l 4.9 1 22 .1 .8 VJ1M-FM VI '96 6 156 .5 2.9 5 55 .4 20 11 61 .9 3.8 8 75 .6 3.1 3 47 2 24 FA '95 5 190 .4 2.5 7 82 .5 2.8 8 71 .6 3.0 6 92 .5 2.3 3 67 .2 2.5 SU '95 3 131 2 12 5 65 .4 1.6 5 51 .4 1.3 3 57 2 9 2 35 .1 1.4 SP '95 7 164 .5 3.0 9 67 .7 3.1 II 66 .8 3.2 6 53 .4 2.0 5 53 .4 3.7 4-took 5 100 .4 3.4 7 47 .6 2.4 9 92 .7 2.9 9 99 .4 2.1 3 It .3 2.3 VI '95 5 164 .4 2.2 7 60 .5 2.6 7 69 .5 2.1 6 83 .4 2.0 4 77 .3 3.2 • Stetion(*> changed call latt*»-MePagel3. 2-Book: Avg. of moat rtcenf 5 »urvey». LANSfNQ-eAST LANSING Figure 17.8. Section of Target Listener Trends From Arbitron's Radio Market Report, East Lansing, Michigan, Winter 1996 SOURCE: Reprinted by permission. © 1993, 1994, The Arbitron Company. Electronic Media Audience Measurement 197 The low response rate associated with radio listening diaries is a problem because it challenges sample representativeness. Further, hyping by stations often distorts normal listening patterns. Finally, because respondents are recruited from the same households in this research, the number of households is limited. Willhight Research Willhight Research, a Seattle-based organization, collects radio listening data by using telephone interviews about the previous day's radio listening. Established in 1982 to serve the niche of small to medium-size markets, Willhight now provides radio ratings for about 100 markets. In each market, households are selected using RDD procedures. The sample has a distribution from different geographic (zip code) areas that is proportionate to the population. This is obtained through the use of telephone prefixes that correspond to particular zip codes. Next, the selected respondent in a household is identified according to the criteria of being aged 12 or older and having had the most recent birthday in the household. Selected individuals are called every day for 7 days and are asked to recall the radio stations they listened to the previous day for any radio listening that occurred at home, in a car, or in any other location during specific dayparts. Response rates average 60% and, depending on market size, usable samples range from 500 to 2,000. Reports are available on a monthly basis in both print and electronic formats. Figure 17.9 shows a section from a Willhight Research report. The main drawback to Willhight's method of research is the inability to reach respondents on a daily basis, which results in reliance on respondent recall of radio listening on the missed days and the errors associated with faulty memory. Strategic Radio Research Strategic Radio Research, a Chicago-based company, provides AccuRat-ings™, a radio listening measurement service that assesses core radio listen­ing, or the radio station "listened to most." Established in summer 1992 with radio audience data for 3 markets, AccuRatings now covers more than 30 markets, which are reported on a quarterly basis with weekly updates. A V E R A G E Q U A R T E R H O U R S H A R E ( % ) Survey Area: MUaoula/ l o l o , MT (SSA) Date: A p r i l 7 - June 1 . 1994 Daypart: Monday-Friday 10am-3pm 12* 18+ 2 5 - 5 4 1 8 - 3 4 3 5 - 5 4 55+ Male Female Par Mala Female Adult Mala Female Adult Mala Famale Adult Male Female Adult Mala Female Adult KDXT FM 11.9 11.6 11.8 11.8 11.3 11.6 9.9 15.3 12.4 16.4 11.4 14.4 7.4 18.9 13.3 7.6 4.1 K6RZ AM 2.4 1.3 1.9 2.5 1.3 2.0 2.3 1.1 2 . 8 1.2 . 5 . 3 10.6 5.7 K6V0 AM 18.7 11.9 1S.6 19.0 12.1 15.9 19.4 4.5 12.4 9.6 5.6 23.5 7.5 15.3 33.0 39.5 36.0 KLCY AM 1.9 .3 1.1 1.9 . 3 1.2 3.4 1.8 . 3 . 2 6.3 3.0 1.1 . 5 KKSO FM 9.1 16.1 12.3 9.3 16.4 12.5 6.2 20.4 12.8 5.1 1S.7 9.5 6.4 24.7 15.8 21.3 5.2 13.9 KYU AM 1.9 3.9 2.8 1.9 3.9 2.8 3.4 6.7 5.0 6.9 11.1 9.0 KYSS FM 25.1 21.5 23.5 24.2 20.7 22.6 21.0 16.2 18.7 25.0 21.2 23.5 22.1 15.1 18.5 25.2 28.2 26.6 GOQ FM 22.5 18.7 20.8 22.8 19.0 21.1 26.9 23.2 25.2 41.3 4 1 . 0 41.2 10.0 6.5 8.2 KM8I FM 2.3 1.0 2.3 1.1 . 3 .1 . 5 . 3 8 . 9 4.1 KUFM FM 5.3 11.3 8.0 5.4 11.4 8.1 8 . 2 9.1 8.6 . 5 7.8 3.5 16.4 11.8 14.0 2 . 3 17.1 9.1 Total AOH Per.(00) 61.9 51.7 113.6 60.9 50.9 111.8 34.2 29.9 64.1 29.5 20.6 50.1 17.1 18.1 35.2 14.3 12.2 26.5 Figure 17.9. Section of Average Quarter-Hour Shares From Willhight Research Report, Missoula/Lolo, April 7-June 1,1994 SOURCE: Willhight Research, Inc. Reprinted by permission. Electronic Media Audience Measurement 199 Strategic Radio Research uses short, 6-minute telephone interviews pri­marily to query respondents aged 12 and older about the radio stations they listened to most in the past week and during different dayparts. Respondents are asked to list all the radio stations they listened to in the past week and their demographic characteristics—age, gender, ethnicity, occupation, education level, and household income. Additional questions about product usage may be included, depending on specific clients' needs, such as questions about brands of soda and beer purchased, cable channels viewed, frequency of movie attendance, and intended purchase of a new vehicle. Strategic Radio Research interviews one respondent per household in samples of 550 to 8,000, depending on market size. Households are selected using proportionate stratified random sampling procedures based on working blocks of telephone exchanges located within specified geographic bounda­ries. The sampling frame consists of area market telephone directories sup­plemented with RDD numbers generated by Survey Sampling, Inc. Response rates range from 36% to 55%. Respondents are selected according to the following priority: a male aged 45 or older, a male aged 12 to 44, and a female aged 12 or older. Interviews are conducted over several days of each week of a survey period during weekday evening hours and at least one weekend day per week. Reports are available quarterly with weekly updates. Figure 17.10 shows a section of an AccuRatings report. The AccuRatings method has some drawbacks. The data produced repre­sent shares of preferred radio stations, and the past week as reported by respondents does not always refer to the same 7 days, but approximates to core radio listening in general. Also, quota sampling of respondents as opposed to random sampling compromises data representativeness. RADAR SRI operates and conducts Radio's All Dimension Audience Research surveys, which provide weekly network radio audience estimates for 48 weeks in a year. Reports are issued twice a year. RADAR uses RDD procedures to select households. Next, a predesignated respondent is randomly selected from a list of all the respondents in each household. Repeated calls are made to contact the selected household and predesignated respondent. Respondents are asked about the previous 24 hours of radio listening, whether they listened to any radio stations during 3-hour periods, and the location of the listening. This information is obtained every 200 RESEARCH BEFORE THE ADVERTISING RUNS p!llrlM)llllll1 1-800-777-8877 i m - m p»0o> a>m m * » s-9 tl ni,4ot 444 •m •40 00 tl 37040 91340 8 4 «>94 tl 0 4 1a 94 la 8.7 11 0.9 la 27.4 4 8 9 0 tl Sti ( *oo 9.1 4 8 MRI I i 37040 91340 8 4 * 1 2 4 la 0 4 Sa 0 4 la 114 2l 124 2a 124 9K 22* Si SM.40 114 4*9 MO 3t 179,40 114 •134 0 114 2l 134 2t 94 Si 114 3t 124 2 0 89 Ta b t . w o O.T 411 0 0 tl 0.00 14 * 14 12a 24 0 34 4i 4 4 fl 4.7 41 4.4 4 8 341 Si 3**400 8 4 .1*7 t*u Si 0,90 4.7 * 4 4 *i 7.1 4a 44 4a 44 0 14 7a 44 MS 8 1 4l 411*000 34.9 •109 011 4i 0 4 0 0,200 4 4 * 4 . 7 0 14 71 44 Sa 44 4| 0.1 0 3.9 m 19 10t M4.900 93.1 409 00*0 71 0 4 0 0,200 44 * 34 0 34 fl 54 7a 2 4 7i 44 Sa 44 m OI 4a 114,400 14.1 40* WOK 0 B 4 0 14 * 1 4 4a 0.1 Ma 14 Ma 1.7 Oi 14 Hi t.7 MX 18 *t 212,000 1*4 4 0 INCV 9t 4740 3 4 * 1 . 7 9l 14 0a 24 0a 1 4 0 44 Ma 14 m 18 111 09.400 44 4S0 00 01 0,00 2 4 * 2 4 Ma 14 0 14 11a 2.7 Ma 14 0 1.7 2 8 94 111 Mt.00 m.ico 0.7 4 0 M.W Hi 4140 14 * 14 0a 14 0 14 9a 2.0 9a 1.9 0a 14 m 0 ft Mt.00 m.ico U.1 .17$ 1MB 12a 34,90 14 * 3 4 Ma 14 111 14 0 2 4 12a 1.9 9a 24 18 W Hi 02.700 l.f 4 0 00 Oi S,20 14 * 1.1 Hi 24 0a 14 Hi 1.7 13a 14 Ma 14 8 41 m 0,400 14 4 0 vmr Ma 9940 14 * 14 til 14 0a 14 Ma 14 Ma 1.0 Ma 14 m 8 tSi 0,000 S.1 4 0 00 III 1740 1.1 * 14 30a 04 Mt 1.4 9a 04 19a 04 tSa 14 in 87 at 9,000 14 40 VMt M« 13,30 14 * 0.7 23a 04 tSi 14 lla 14 tit 04 Ma 04 9 8 Hi 94,200 S.4 .U4 910 I7i H.oao 04 * *.• 7a 4.1 17a 14 30a 04 Mi 14 27a 04 8 17 lt« 0.00 1.7 4 9 wT**m UU 11,40 04 * 0 4 Ma 1.1 224 •4 17a 04 17i 1.1 Mi 1.0 20 212 20| SS.300 4 0 011 t*l Q.O0 •4 * 0.4 20a 04 20t •4 0a 0.4 24a •4 Bi 0.7 Mft 111 Bi 9,409 2.1 4 0 00 01 0,90 0.7 * 04 22a •4 32> •4 Ma •4 8a •4 01 04 28 211 Ui 94,900 14 .10 00 111 0,00 *.7 * 0 4 0a 14 Ma 14 TSi 14 11a 14 29t 04 9 M Hi 11,000 I J 40 an 22* 0 4 0 0.7 * 0 4 24a 04 in 04 27l •4 0a 0.1 Ma 0.9 18 0 Ih 29400 14 424 000 231 * 4 0 0.4 * 04 29a •4 24a •4 19a 0.7 29i 0.4 St •J 4 8 373 17i 01,900 44 .131 MMC 24t 0.70 0 4 * 0 4 40a 04 27a 04 22a 04 Ma 14 Oa 14 251 204 Mt 9.300 a.i 4«1 00»m 01 0,40 0 4 * 0 . 7 Oi •4 1*a 0.7 30a 0 4 57a 04 22a 0.7 n 8 Ml 42,100 2 4 •Of 900*0 01 0,400 0 4 * 0 4 17a 1.1 0a 04 29a 04 20a 0.7 17a 1.1 8 M 211 49,900 S.0 .1*7 KM<M 271 •.00 04 * 0 4 19a 14 •4 Ma 04 22a •4 42a 0.2 8 11 22i 41,900 14 •90 0*0 0a •,00 04 * 0 4 37a •4 2»a 04 9a 04 8a 04 Ba 04 2 8 90 Of 11^00 0.7 444 MM 2*1 7,50 04 * 0.1 20a 04 23a •4 8a •4 04 20a 04 18 18 «0i 15,700 0.9 427 0 0 30l 4,70 0.4 * 0 4 04 10a 04 44a 0.1 31a 04 Ma 04 71 U S i 21.100 I J 4 0 00 31a 4.«0 0.4 * 04 27a 0.1 •4 •4 41a 04 04 8 m Mi 0,900 04 4 0 wanr 32a 4.90 04 * 0.1 41a •4 31a •4 9a 04 04 Oi 04 271 1M S i 7,100 04 •134 nut aw SU •4 0 0 4 * 0 4 0a 0.1 •4 0.0 04 0.0 m 8 2«l 32,900 1.0 .« 00 Mi S.oao 04 * 0 4 32a 04 40i •4 3*4 •4 Ma 04 21a 04 28 ITS Sit 0,000 04 457 MM 35a 4,90 0 4 * 0 4 3li 04 34a •4 21a 04 0.0 41a 04 10 0 Ml 1,400 •4 4 0 0H'0 Ma 4.40 04 * 0.0 04 0 4 •4 0.0 Ma 04 a 9 Si 24.S00 14 4 0 t»*t**/9 371 4.00 0 4 * 0 4 11a 04 Ota 04 37t 04 SOa 04 9a 04 8 9 17i 30,100 14 •90 0*0 3*4 4.00 04 * 0.1 Ha 04 20a •4 8a •4 04 9a 0.4 8 M 47t H,300 0.7 427 0 0 3*1 3,700 3,*0 •4 * 0.1 47a 0.1 43a •4 44a •4 •4 Mi •4 18 91 Oi ft,T00 0.9 451 00 40a 3,700 3,*0 0 4 * 0 . 1 4ia 04 9a 04 04 toa 04 31a 04 8 • S i 9400 14 •03 0UNV9 41a 3.0* •4 * 0.0 Ota 04 01 •4 47a 0.1 8a 04 40t •4 M 8 30l 20,700 1.T .90 00 12* ' 2,00 •4 * 0 4 391 04 9a •4 •4 9a 44 •4 171 Ml Oi n,2oo 0.9 •in 00 Ua 1 4 0 1 4 0 04 * 0 4 04 04 •4 0.0 39a •4 2 8 0 1 Ma 1,900 04 4 0 0 0 *4« 1 4 0 1 4 0 04 • 0 4 0.0 34a •4 40i •4 44i 04 •4 a 9 Sit 14,700 I J 4 0 00 Ui 2.00 0 . 1 * 0 4 30 04 30 •4 9a •4 22a 04 111 •4 8 44 4*1 9,000 OJ 422 0*9*0 Ma 1.00 0 . 1 * 0 4 04 •4 •4 27i 04 32a •4 a 8 Ml 1,900 0.1 .90 00 47a 1.00 0 . 1 * 0 4 43a 04 41a •4 42a 04 42a •4 •4 8 8 S4l 7,200 04 4 0 00 0a 1,00 0.1 * 0 4 44a 0.1 42a •4 4Sa •4 0a •4 01 0.1 m 0 ill tt,900 •UI .134 0U>0 «*t 1 4 0 0.1 * 0 4 04 44a •4 •4 47| •4 Ml 0.1 MX Mt S7i S.000 04 40 00 50a 140 0.1 * 0.1 04 43a •4 04 39a •4 04 71 54 231,400 0 4 0 0 1 0 , 9 0 1 4 * 1 4 14 1.9 24 24 1.9 3.000 •4 ootnna 1.00 04 * 04 44 04 04 94 94 1,374,900 0 4 0 0 0 001 • 1 474,90 0 4 * 9 7 4 744 0 4 74.1 0 4 M 4 00,100 44 0BH0M 0 , 9 0 4 4 * 1 4 0 4 344 0.0 9 4 0 4 Figure 17.10. Section of Standard Demo Ranker for Persons 18-24 From AccuRatings Report, New York, Winter 1994 SOURCE: Reprinted by permission. © 1998 by Strategic Media Research, Inc. day for 7 days. RADAR response rates of 70% rank highest among the syndicated ratings services. Figure 17.11 shows the location of radio audi­ences generated from a RADAR report. Electronic Media Audience Measurement 201 TOTAL PERSONS 1 2 * ( 0 0 0 ) faOOOO i 3 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 9 . 0 0 1 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 9 . 0 0 1 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 AM AM AM N PM PM PM M AM JSJHOME f i l W I i J A U T O 1 | OTHER Figure 17.11. Location of Radio Audiences SOURCE: Generated from RADAR Report, Fall 1993. Reprinted by permission. When respondents cannot be reached on a particular day, they are asked to recall their radio listening during the previous day or days, and reliance on memory may lead to recall inaccuracies. In the absence of completed daily interviews for 7 days, a problem that arises on a limited basis, radio listening for the obtained days is ascribed to the missing days. Another possible prob­lem is that, knowing that they will be reporting their radio listening, respon­dents may be influenced to change their listening behavior, thereby distorting their normal listening patterns. Summary All of the electronic media audience measurement services discussed in this chapter provide audience estimates of program or station audience size and composition. Depending on the method of data collection, type of sampling, fieldwork procedure, and measuring instrument, audience estimates vary from service to service. 202 RESEARCH BEFORE THE ADVERTISING RUNS Audimeters measure television exposure but not audiences of the pro­grams; People Meters measure both but demand continual participation from respondents. The diary approach depends on memories, and the telephone interview may also be subject to faulty or biased recall. Response rates for all approaches have systematically declined in recent years, making the recruit­ing of a representative sample all the more difficult. Future Prospects The electronic media audience measurement industry has been developing new audience measurement systems that would require less active participa­tion from audiences and be more respondent-friendly. These include a scan­ning system that recognizes all members of the household and logs all TV exposure for each family member, a pocket-radio People Meter that senses inaudible codes embedded in radio sound tracks, and a wristwatch that picks up signals from the sound tracks of televised advertisements. Critics, however, have called these new technologies intrusive and Orwellian, suggesting that respondents approached to participate in such surveys will either reject being recruited or be so aware they are being monitored that they will change their behavior as a consequence. Either outcome could lead to data unrepresentative of the vast population of television viewers and radio listeners. The debate continues, and the development of new technology to provide better electronic media audience measurement intensifies. Notes 1. Statistical Research Inc., CONTAM Report (Westfield, NJ: Statistical Research Inc., 1989). See also Ronald Milavsky, "How Good Is the A. C. Nielsen People Meter System?" Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 56, 1992, 102-115. 2. Hugh M. Beville, Audience Rating (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1985). 3. Kenneth R. Clark, "Nielsen Loses More Points With TV Networks," Chicago Tribune, May 10,1990. 4. Statistical Research Inc., CONTAM Report. 5. Milavsky, "How Good Is the A. C. Nielsen People Meter System?" 6. Elizabeth Jensen, "Networks Create Ratings Test System Out of Frustration With Nielsen Data," Wall Street Journal, February 4,1994. Consumer Purchasing, Starch, and STAS Does Magazine Advertising Produce an Immediate Effect? John Philip Jones The reason this chapter appears in the second section of this book—that devoted to re...

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